The stages of vulvar cancer refer to how much the cancer has grown and how far it has spread throughout the body.
- Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ): This is the earliest stage, where the cancer is found only in the vulva, and only on the surface of the skin.
- Stage I: The cancer is found only in the vulva and/or the perineum, or the space between the rectum and vagina. Stage I vulvar tumors are no more than two centimeters in size.
- Stage II: The cancer is found in the vulva and/or the perineum, or the space between the rectum and vagina, and the tumor is larger than two centimeters.
- Stage III: The cancer has spread from the vulva and/or perineum to nearby tissues, such as the lower part of the urethra, the vagina, or the anus; the tumor may also have spread to nearby lymph nodes.
- Stage IV: The cancer has spread beyond the urethra, vagina and anus into the lining of the bladder and bowel; it may also have spread to the lymph nodes in the pelvis or elsewhere.