In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic tests and procedures may include the following:
- Urinalysis - Laboratory examination of urine for various cells and chemicals, such as red blood cells, white blood cells, infection, or excessive protein.
- Intravenous pyelogram (IVP) - A series of X-rays of the kidney, ureters, and bladder with the injection of a contrast dye into the vein—to detect tumors, abnormalities, kidney stones, or any obstructions, and to assess renal blood flow.
- Cystoscopy (also called cystourethroscopy) - An examination in which a scope, a flexible tube and viewing device, is inserted through the urethra to examine the bladder and urinary tract for structural abnormalities or obstructions, such as tumors or stones.
- Renal ultrasound - A noninvasive test in which a transducer is passed over the kidney producing sound waves which bounce off of the kidney, transmitting a picture of the organ on a video screen. The test is used to determine the size and shape of the kidney, and to detect a mass, kidney stone, cyst, or other obstruction or abnormalities.