In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for testicular cancer may include the following:
- Ultrasound - a diagnostic technique which uses high-frequency sound waves to create an image. This test can be used to determine if a lump on a testicle is solid or filled with fluid. (Solid lumps are more likely to be cancerous.)
- Blood tests - assessment of blood samples to check for increased levels of certain proteins and enzymes to determine if cancerous cells are present, or to determine how much cancer is present.
- Biopsy - a procedure in which tissue samples are removed (during surgery) from the body for examination under a microscope to determine if cancer is present.
When testicular tumors are present, the entire tumor, as well as the testicle and spermatic cord, is typically removed to prevent the spread of cancerous cells through the blood and lymph systems.