A number of other movement disorders are related conditions of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Known as parkinsonism, these conditions produce symptoms that resemble PD, but have other causes. Among these are:
- Postencephalitic parkinsonism resulting from encephalitis, an inflammation of the brain tissue
- Drug-induced parkinsonism that may affect patients taking chlorpromazine or haloperidol for psychiatric problems. Some medications for high blood pressure, epilepsy and stomach problems produce symptoms of parkinsonism.
- Toxin-induced parkinsonism possibly caused by carbon monoxide, carbon disulfide and manganese dust, factors that may exist in some work settings.
- Post-traumatic parkinsonism resulting from a severe head injury or repeated blows to the skull
- Arteriosclerotic parkinsonism caused by brain damage arising from multiple, small strokes
Another, very rare form is Parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam. This especially aggressive type affects Chamorro natives of Guam and the Mariana islands.
A number of other related conditions of Parkinson’s that present similar symptoms include:
- Essential tremor, not the same condition as PD or a precursor of the disease
- Normal pressure hydrocephalus, an increase in pressure of the cerebrospinal fluid
- Dementia with Lewy bodies, abnormal protein deposits in the brain
- Parkinson’s-plus diseases that have signs of PD and other symptoms
- Multiple system atrophy (MSA), several disorders that affect voluntary and involuntary muscles
- Corticobasal degeneration caused by atrophy of the cerebral cortex and other areas of the brain
- Progressive subnuclear palsy, also known as Steele-Richardson-Olszewski syndrome, results from the deterioration of nerve cells in the brain stem