The causes of movement disorders vary depending on the specific disorder. However, generally speaking, movement is produced and coordinated by several interacting areas of the brain, including the motor cortex, cerebellum and basal ganglia, which if damaged can lead to movement disorders.
Some movement disorders are caused by age-related changes, environment toxins, genetic disorders (as is the case with Huntington’s disease), medications (e.g., antipsychotic drugs), metabolic disorders, Parkinson’s disease and stroke. Disorders such as Huntington’s disease and certain inherited ataxias are caused by inherited genetic defects. Conditions that cause sustained muscle contraction limited to a particular muscle group are either genetically inherited or caused by trauma. Most of the time, the cause of Parkinson’s disease is unknown, though some forms are genetically inherited.