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Malunion

Causes of Malunion

The causes of malunion include inadequate immobilization of a fracture, misalignment at the time of immobilization, and premature removal of a cast or other immobilizer. Lifestyle and health factors, such as smoking, excessive alcohol use, poor nutrition, diabetes and fitness deficits, can interfere with bones’ ability to heal, and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, corticosteroids, anticonvulsant drugs and the thyroid replacement hormone thyroxine can contribute to bone weakness and impede healing.