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Cervical Cancer

Stages of Cervical Cancer

The stages of cervical cancer refer to the cancer’s development—i.e., how large it is and how far it has spread. The stages of cervical cancer are given below.

  • Stage 0 (carcinoma in situ): Cancer is found only in the first layer of cells lining the cervix.
  • Stage I: Cancer is only found in the cervix. This can be divided into Stage IA and Stage IB, based on the amount of cancer.
  • Stage IA: Stage IA is further divided into Stage IA1 and IA2, based on the size of the tumor. In Stage IA1, the cancer is no more than three millimeters deep and seven millimeters wide. In Stage IA2, the cancer is three to five millimeters deep and no more than seven millimeters wide.
  • Stage IB: The cancer in this stage is most often seen through a microscope, but can also be seen with the naked eye if it is more than five millimeters deep or more than seven millimeters wide. The cancers that can be seen without a microscope are also divided into Stage 1B1 (not larger than four centimeters) and Stage 1B2 (larger than four centimeters).
  • Stage II: The cancer has spread beyond the cervix, but not yet to the wall or the pelvis or the lower third of the vagina. It, too, is divided into sub-stages.
  • Stage IIA: The cancer has spread beyond the cervix to the upper two thirds of the vagina, thought to the tissues around the uterus.
  • Stage IIB: Not only has the cancer spread to the upper two thirds of the vagina, but it has advanced to the tissues around the uterus as well.
  • Stage III: The cancer has spread to the lower third of the vagina and possibly to the pelvic wall as well; it also may have stopped the kidney from working. This stage is also subdivided based on the cancer’s progression.
  • Stage IIIA: The cancer has not spread to the pelvic wall.
  • Stage IIIB: The cancer has spread to the pelvic wall and/or become sufficiently large to block the tube that connects the kidneys to the bladder called the ureter. This blockage can interfere with kidney function. The cancer may also have spread to lymph notes in the pelvis.
  • Stage IV: The cancer has spread to the bladder, rectum or another parts of the body. This stage is subdivided based on where the cancer has progressed.
  • Stage IVA: The cancer has spread to the rectal wall or bladder, and perhaps the lymph nodes in the pelvis.
  • Stage IVB: The cancer has spread beyond the pelvis and pelvic lymph nodes to, for instance, the abdomen, liver, intestinal tract or lungs.
  • Recurrent cervical cancer: This term refers to cancer that comes back after treatment; it may return in the cervix or elsewhere in the body. 

Locations for Cervical Cancer